There are no good substitutes for understanding.

Reflection Completeness

Reflection-complete ideas: things which keep working even if other people knew about them

Reflection-full ideas: things which get better the more people knew about them

Reflection-incomplete ideas: things which gets worse the more people knew about them.



  • Sales knowledge, and Marketing channels -knowledge of how to acquire customers cheaply- are not reflection-complete: as more entrepreneurs get to know it, the more saturated & less efficient they become
  •  Convergent instrumental goals are reflection-complete: engineering, building stuff will become easier as time progresses

"Anti-inductive" / things where the more people know about it the less effective it will become will get harder as time progresses:

  • Feeling-oriented Communities are not reflection-complete: the higher the inflow, the less the culture can stay stable
  • Action-oriented communities with good moderation can be reflection-complete
  • Startup ideas are reflection-complete; startup ideas with network effects are super reflection-full, the more people use it, the better they become (at least for the owners of the system)